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ABSORPTION OF DIGESTED PRODUCTS:Absorption is the process by which the end products of digestion are taken into blood stream. It is carried out by passive, active or facilitated transport mechanism.Diffusion; Monosaccharides like glucose; amino acids of electrolytes like cl¯. are absorbed by simple diffusion. The passage of these substances into the blood depends upon the concentration gradients.Facilitated transport: Fructose & amino acids are absorbed with the help of carrier ions like Na+. This mechanism is called the facilitated transport.Active transport Occurs against the concentration gradient and hence requires energy. Various nutrients like amino acids, monosaccharides like glucose and electrolytes like Na+ are absorbed into the blood by this mechanism. Fatty acids & glycerol being insoluble cannot be absorbed into the blood. They are incorporated into small droplets called micelles which move into the intestine mucosa. They are reformed into very small protein coated fat globules called the chylomicrons which are transported into the lymph vessels (lacteals) in the villi. These lymph vessels ultimately release the absorbed substances into the blood stream. The absorbed substances finally reach the tissues which utilize then for their activities. This process is called assimilation.The egestion of faeces to the outside through the anal opening is a voluntary process & is carried out by means of mass peristaltic movement.
Disorders of digestive system. 1 Jaundice. French word jaune means yellow.It is yellowish pigmentation of the skin, eyes due to increased levels of bile pigment — bilirubin in the blood. 2 Vomiting. Is the forceful expulsion of the contents of one’s stomach through the mouth & sometimes the nose. The feeling that one is about to vomit is called nausea which usually proceeds to vomiting. Vomiting may be caused due to wide variety of condition. 3 Diarrhoea Gk word Dia — through rheo “flow” — meaning flowing through. is a condition of abnormal bowel frequency & increased liquidity of the feacal discharge. It causes dehydration & salt imbalance. 4 Constipation. Refers to bowel movement that is frequent or hard to pass. It is common cause of painful defecation. Treatment includes change in dietary habits. Because is a symptom, not a disease, effective treatment may require first determining the cause. 5 Indigestion — also called dyspepsia or an upset stomach is discomfort in upper abdomen. It is not a disease but a condition of symptoms including bloating, belching and nausea. Or heart burn. It leads to upper abdominal fullness and feeling full earlier than expected when eating. The causes of indigestion are inadequate enzyme secretion anxiety, food poisoning, over eating & spicy food.