Tag: international

Racism, School Desegregation Laws and the Civil Rights Movement in the United States







The African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968) refers to the social movements in the United States aimed at outlawing racial discrimination against black Americans and restoring voting rights to them. This article covers the phase of the movement between 1955 and 1968, particularly in the South. The emergence of the Black Power Movement, which lasted roughly from 1966 to 1975, enlarged the aims of the Civil Rights Movement to include racial dignity, economic and political self-sufficiency, and freedom from oppression by white Americans.

The movement was characterized by major campaigns of civil resistance. Between 1955 and 1968, acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience produced crisis situations between activists and government authorities. Federal, state, and local governments, businesses, and communities often had to respond immediately to these situations that highlighted the inequities faced by African Americans. Forms of protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts such as the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955–1956) in Alabama; “sit-ins” such as the influential Greensboro sit-ins (1960) in North Carolina; marches, such as the Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) in Alabama; and a wide range of other nonviolent activities.

Noted legislative achievements during this phase of the Civil Rights Movement were passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964, that banned discrimination based on “race, color, religion, or national origin” in employment practices and public accommodations; the Voting Rights Act of 1965, that restored and protected voting rights; the Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965, that dramatically opened entry to the U.S. to immigrants other than traditional European groups; and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, that banned discrimination in the sale or rental of housing. African Americans re-entered politics in the South, and across the country young people were inspired to action.

Desegregation busing in the United States (also known as forced busing or simply busing) is the practice of assigning and transporting students to schools in such a manner as to redress prior racial segregation of schools, or to overcome the effects of residential segregation on local school demographics.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desegregation_busing_in_the_United_States

Iron, Vitamin D May Lead to Smarter, Healthier Children







I’m Alex Villarreal with the VOA Special English Health Report, from http://voaspecialenglish.com | http://facebook.com/voalearningenglish

Many people have low amounts of iron in their blood. But pregnant women need extra iron for their own health and their baby’s health. Iron is important to the development of a baby’s brain and central nervous system. In poor countries, however, providing all pregnant women with iron supplements can be a financial issue. Some experts say giving supplements to babies after they are born is enough. Someone who disagrees is Parul Christian, a nutritionist at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health in Maryland. She and other scientists have been doing research in Nepal. She says their latest findings should settle any question about the value of making sure every pregnant woman receives iron supplements. Iron is a micronutrient. Micronutrients are important substances that are found in small amounts in foods. The researchers first completed a study among poor women in Nepal ten years ago. During pregnancy some of the women received supplements containing iron and another micronutrient, folic acid.Ms. Christian says that study showed the supplements could improve child survival. Now the children are older. The researchers returned to Nepal and tested their neurological development. They found improved abilities among those whose mothers had received iron and folic acid during pregnancy and for three months after. Another new study looks at levels of vitamin D in babies. It says newborns with the lowest levels were twice as likely to develop respiratory infections as those with normal levels of vitamin D. Vitamin D helps build strong bones and strengthens the body’s defenses against disease. The vitamin is commonly added to cow’s milk and also found in supplements. Vitamin D is called the sunshine vitamin. The body naturally produces it from sunlight. Carlos Camargo from Harvard Medical School in Massachusetts and other researchers did the study. It followed more than nine hundred children in New Zealand until they were five years old. Dr. Camargo said the problem of vitamin D deficiency is not limited to countries with the least sun. There are low levels of vitamin D in people living in areas where there is a lot of sun. This is because people are spending more time indoors. For VOA Special English I’m Alex Villarreal. You can find more Health Reports at our website, voaspecialenglish.com. And you can find us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English.

(Adapted from a radio program broadcast 05Jan2011)

The Great Gildersleeve: Aunt Hattie Stays On / Hattie and Hooker / Chairman of Women's Committee







The Great Gildersleeve (1941–1957), initially written by Leonard Lewis Levinson, was one of broadcast history’s earliest spin-off programs. Built around Throckmorton Philharmonic Gildersleeve, a character who had been a staple on the classic radio situation comedy Fibber McGee and Molly, first introduced on Oct. 3, 1939, ep. #216. The Great Gildersleeve enjoyed its greatest success in the 1940s. Actor Harold Peary played the character during its transition from the parent show into the spin-off and later in a quartet of feature films released at the height of the show’s popularity.

On Fibber McGee and Molly, Peary’s Gildersleeve was a pompous windbag who became a consistent McGee nemesis. “You’re a haa-aa-aa-aard man, McGee!” became a Gildersleeve catchphrase. The character was given several conflicting first names on Fibber McGee and Molly, and on one episode his middle name was revealed as Philharmonic. Gildy admits as much at the end of “Gildersleeve’s Diary” on the Fibber McGee and Molly series (Oct. 22, 1940).

He soon became so popular that Kraft Foods—looking primarily to promote its Parkay margarine spread — sponsored a new series with Peary’s Gildersleeve as the central, slightly softened and slightly befuddled focus of a lively new family.

Premiering on August 31, 1941, The Great Gildersleeve moved the title character from the McGees’ Wistful Vista to Summerfield, where Gildersleeve now oversaw his late brother-in-law’s estate and took on the rearing of his orphaned niece and nephew, Marjorie (originally played by Lurene Tuttle and followed by Louise Erickson and Mary Lee Robb) and Leroy Forester (Walter Tetley). The household also included a cook named Birdie. Curiously, while Gildersleeve had occasionally spoken of his (never-present) wife in some Fibber episodes, in his own series the character was a confirmed bachelor.

In a striking forerunner to such later television hits as Bachelor Father and Family Affair, both of which are centered on well-to-do uncles taking in their deceased siblings’ children, Gildersleeve was a bachelor raising two children while, at first, administering a girdle manufacturing company (“If you want a better corset, of course, it’s a Gildersleeve”) and then for the bulk of the show’s run, serving as Summerfield’s water commissioner, between time with the ladies and nights with the boys. The Great Gildersleeve may have been the first broadcast show to be centered on a single parent balancing child-rearing, work, and a social life, done with taste and genuine wit, often at the expense of Gildersleeve’s now slightly understated pomposity.

Many of the original episodes were co-written by John Whedon, father of Tom Whedon (who wrote The Golden Girls), and grandfather of Deadwood scripter Zack Whedon and Joss Whedon (creator of Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Firefly and Dr. Horrible’s Sing-Along Blog).

The key to the show was Peary, whose booming voice and facility with moans, groans, laughs, shudders and inflection was as close to body language and facial suggestion as a voice could get. Peary was so effective, and Gildersleeve became so familiar a character, that he was referenced and satirized periodically in other comedies and in a few cartoons.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Gildersleeve

Pro Vitamin Complete! http:www.proimageteam.com/47231







Pro Vitamin Complete, Fruta Vida and Nzuri are great liquid vitamins that promotes longer, stronger hair and nails. Gives super energy too! Relieves stress and tention! www.twitter.com/regenias